What Is The Cause Of Diabetes?
One can view the cause of diabetes as being perpetrated by genetics. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are partly inherited; type 1 has been discovered to have a viral catalyst and even such factors as stress or chemicals found in the environment. Although it has been discovered that a genetic element makes certain individuals predisposed to these viral catalysts, cases suggest that this cause of diabetes may still require an external trigger. Another cause of diabetes in some type 1 sufferers is a gene that makes younger people suffer the type of diabetes that normally only happens in maturity.
But there is a stronger genetic pattern of inheritance in type 2 diabetes sufferers. The cause of diabetes in this group is oftentimes correlated with having immediate family members (first-degree) who are already suffering from the disease. The risks even go higher with twins (almost 100% chance of developing it) and in families where a main contributory factor such as obesity (also inherited) is present.
The cause of diabetes from obesity is not without its irony because even as it is partly inherited, diabetes from this type of condition is easily preventable. One should make the distinction however between being temporarily overweight, from being metabolically obese. Medical experts specifically cite central obesity which is fat specific around the waist, as particularly the prime cause of diabetes.
What happens is that fat surrounding abdominal organs make sufferers vulnerable to insulin resistance as they tend to have more levels of the hormone adipokine which reduces or totally impairs glucose intolerance. The medical statistics affirm this as obesity has been found in recent years to be present in almost half the cases of all type 2 diabetes diagnoses. Type 2 diabetes has also been called adult-onset diabetes as it normally appears in late adulthood. In recent years however due to a troubling rise in the number of obese children and teenagers, type 2 diabetes has made its appearance in this demographic, underscoring the need for effective ways to combat over-eating and a general lack of exercise among a growing number of American youths.
The metabolic components
The cause of diabetes may even be because of other disorders such as Wolfrman’s syndrome which is an auto-somal recessive neurodegenerative disorder that first becomes evident in childhood and consists of diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and even deafness. Historically, it was not until the 1900s that the pathogenesis of the disease was first understood and clarified through experiments. Before that, the various components as to what the cause of diabetes was were discovered piecemeal; the pancreas in 1889 (discovered by Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski and in 1910 when Sir Edward Schafer discovered the chemical insulin as essential in the quest for a cure. The metabolic components of the disorder were not fully understood until 1921 when efforts in this regard led to the discovery and commercial availability of insulin injections.
The distinctions between the types of diabetes were not made until the 1930s and even until the mid-20th century, mortality rates due to unclear methodologies and strategies to its management despite widely-available treatment, were extremely high.